Quarterly Accounting Update – Q4 2017

Welcome to the Fourth Quarter issue of our Quarterly Accounting Update. Each quarter, we will provide you with up-to-date information for consideration in your financial reporting and disclosures. Our goal is for you to have current, relevant information available prior to finalizing your financial reporting deliverables.  This update is organized as follows:

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Selected Highlights

This section includes an executive summary of selected items and hot topics covered in this update.

FASB Update

This section includes an overview of selected Accounting Standards Updates (ASUs) issued during the period.

U.S. Tax Reform Impacts

This section includes special guidance addressing the impact of recently passed tax reform.

Rev Rec Implementation

This section includes special guidance on preparing for implementation of the new revenue recognition standard.

Regulatory Update

This section includes an overview of selected updates, releases, rules and actions during the period that might impact financial information, operations and/or governance.

Other Developments

This section includes an overview of other developments, actions, and projects of the FASB, PCC, EITF and/or other rulemaking organizations.

On the Horizon

This section includes an overview of selected projects and exposure drafts of the FASB.

Appendices

  • A – Important Implementation Dates
  • B – Illustrative Disclosures for Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements

Quarterly Accounting Update: Selected Highlights

U.S. Tax Reform will Impact Financial Reporting

The recently passed tax reform bill contains substantial changes that is not only likely to have a major impact on tax rates but will also have potentially significant financial reporting implications for corporations and small businesses including requirements for companies to recognize the effects of changes in tax laws and rates on deferred tax assets and liabilities.

More information on its impacts can be found in the U.S. Tax Reform Impacts section.

Rev Rec—Are You Ready?

The new revenue recognition standard is historic in its breadth and impact across industries. It is urgent that management start assessing the impact of the new revenue recognition standard and forging a successful path to its implementation.

Find out more in the Rev Rec Implementation section.

Deregulation Efforts Continue

The House and Senate are both considering a variety of bills that would revise the Dodd-Frank Act, the JOBs Act, and expand SOX 404(b) exemptions.

Read more about these issues in the Regulatory Update section.

Join us: on Wednesday, January 10, for a one-hour webcast designed to provide insight into recent discussions, actions and pronouncements from the FASB and other accounting regulatory bodies.

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Quarterly Accounting Update: FASB Update

Other than a couple of Accounting Standards Updates (ASUs) that made some minor changes to the Accounting Standards Codification (ASC), the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) did not issue any significant guidance during the fourth quarter. A complete list of all ASUs issued or effective in 2017 is included in Appendix A.

Quarterly Accounting Update: U.S. Tax
Reform Impacts

The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (TCJA) was signed into law by the President on Friday December 22, 2017. The TCJA makes sweeping changes to many parts of the tax law for both individuals and businesses. The changes that most affect businesses include the reduction in the corporate tax rate, changes in business deductions, and many international provisions. This section reviews some of the implications of the TCJA under ASC 740, Income Taxes, with a particular emphasis on the reporting period that includes the enactment date of December 22, 2017.

Enactment Date

ASC 740-10-35-4 requires the effect of a change in tax law or rates to be recognized as of the date of enactment, which is officially December 22, 2017.  As a result of the timing of the enactment of the TCJA, Companies will include the tax impact in the financial reporting period (including interim periods) that encompasses the enactment date.

Corporate Rate Reduction

The TCJA will reduce the corporate tax rate from a top rate of 35% to a flat rate of 21%.  For calendar year corporations, this will require a revaluation of the deferred tax assets or liabilities as of December 31, 2017 to reflect the reduced rate of tax over which temporary items will reverse, with the resulting impact of the rate change included in income from continuing operations pursuant to ASC 740-20-45-8.  In almost all cases, the impact of the rate reduction applied to temporary differences (including those related to OCI or acquisition accounting still within the measurement period) is recorded in income from continuing operations. In the case of unrealized gains or losses in OCI, this could result in a disproportionate effect left in OCI (“dangling debits or credits to OCI”) as a result of the prohibition of the backwards tracing of unrealized gains and losses on available-for-sale securities, pursuant to ASC 740-20-45-3.

Fiscal year entities will have an added layer of complexity in evaluating temporary differences that may reverse before or after the date the new rates go into effect, and temporary differences will therefore need to be scheduled for reversal to determine the tax rate impact.

Repeal of Corporate Alternative Minimum Tax (AMT)

The repeal of the corporate AMT affects both the current tax provision on a prospective basis as well as the deferred tax asset for the period coinciding with the enacted date. Under the new law, the minimum tax credit can be used to offset regular tax, and 50% of any excess can be used in any year as refundable credit (100% in 2021 if not already used by then). As a result of the changes to the AMT regime, if a valuation allowance has historically been recorded against an AMT credit deferred tax asset, the valuation allowance position should be reassessed and potentially released as part of the accounting for the change in tax law. Companies will also need to consider reclassifying an AMT carryforward deferred tax asset as a tax receivable to reflect the refundable nature of the credit.

Expensing of Fixed Assets, Bonus Depreciation

The TCJA generally allows 100% expensing of qualified depreciable assets acquired and placed in service after September 27, 2017 and before January 1, 2023. Full expensing may result in creating additional taxable temporary differences for depreciable assets, which may impact an assessment of the realizability of other existing deferred tax assets, including any net operating losses generated by the immediate expensing of depreciable property.

Interest Expense Limitations

The TCJA repeals the current Section 163(j) which limits interest expense paid to foreign related parties and replaces it with a much more expansive limitation that could apply to any taxpayer. Treatment of previous 163(j) carryforwards will most likely be subject to transition rules, not yet known, which could require an adjustment to existing deferred tax assets. A new interest expense limitation of 30% of “adjusted taxable income” will apply to taxpayers with annual average gross receipts in excess of $25 million, beginning in tax years starting on or after January 1, 2018. Highly leveraged companies are likely to be impacted, and as a result of the limitation, these companies will set up new deferred tax assets for any excess disallowed interest with an indefinite carryforward period, subject to assessment for realizability.

Net Operating Losses

For existing net operating losses (NOLs), it will be necessary to reassess the realizability of these deferred tax assets, particularly in light of the changes to tax reform that will impact the 2018 tax year and beyond. Under the TCJA, for tax years beginning on or after January 1, 2018, Federal net operating losses generated will possess an indefinite carryforward period (with no carrybacks permitted).  Future NOLs with indefinite carryforward periods will also need to be assessed for realizability, especially when a company also has indefinite-lived deferred tax liabilities, as there are views that suggest a company may utilize indefinite-lived deferred tax liabilities as a source of income to support the realizability of indefinite-lived deferred tax assets.

Repatriation Tax

Probably the most significant item that will impact the 2017 financial statements is the deemed repatriation tax. The TCJA provides for a one-time tax on the deemed repatriation of earnings previously deferred in foreign corporations in preparation for the move to a more territorial tax system.

The repatriation tax is essentially a “toll-charge” on undistributed earnings and profits (E&P) of U.S.-owned foreign corporations. This represents a current tax liability on unremitted foreign earnings of 15.5% (liquid assets) or 8% (illiquid assets), which is achieved by permitting a deduction against the unremitted earnings amounts. The inclusion in income will be based on the E&P at the higher of November 12, 2017 or December 31, 2017.  Determination of each foreign subsidiary’s E&P and previously taxed income (PTI) as of the applicable measurement dates will be essential. Stringent record-keeping of PTI both under old law and the toll-charge in both U.S. dollars and functional currency will be important for purposes of calculating foreign currency gains and losses as well as foreign taxes on repatriation of cash.

Since foreign tax credits (FTCs) will generally be allowed to the extent the distribution is not excluded (based on an equivalency calculation), foreign tax pools will also have to be calculated. These FTCs will be available, both from carryforwards and as released from tax pools.  It will also be necessary to have sufficiently detailed financial information to bifurcate assets into cash/liquid assets and non-cash/illiquid assets. At the election of the taxpayer, NOL carryforwards may be allowed to offset the toll-charge which will impact the tax rate.

The computed toll-charge will be a current tax expense in the period of enactment, with 8% of the tax to be recorded as a current tax payable and the remainder recorded as a long-term tax payable, assuming a company elects to pay the tax over the afforded installment period. Companies will need to assess whether there will be state tax liabilities on the repatriations, as well as consider treaty implications, if any.

Participation Exemption

The move to a territorial system of taxation through the participation exemption is effected through the application of a 100% dividends received deduction (DRD) from specified foreign corporations after implementation of the one-time repatriation tax. While future distributions from applicable specified foreign corporations will receive a full exclusion from US income tax, Companies will still need to consider foreign withholding taxes and state taxes for states which do not conform to the 100% dividend received deduction.

This participation exemption does not eliminate the need to assess outside basis differences and the indefinite reinvestment assertion and whether deferred taxes need to be recorded for such differences, including foreign withholding taxes.

Companies will need to consider indefinite reinvestment position regarding initial investment and earnings to which the 100% DRD is applicable. If not asserting indefinite reinvestment, deferred tax liabilities may need to be recorded for the U.S. and foreign tax consequences of any outside basis difference. The company will need to continue to assess and evaluate company’s intentions with respect to outside basis, and the US character and source of income from recovery of basis.

Global Intangible Low Taxed Income (GILTI) and other Base Erosion Anti-Abuse Provisions (BEAT)

The GILTI tax, along with other base-erosion provisions will most certainly impact ASC 740 calculations.  Because these new provisions will impact tax years after December 31, 2017 (with the exception of including any analysis required for deferred scheduling), we are not including a significant discussion on this topic in this section.  Additional guidance on these provisions, including the tax accounting implications of it, are expected in the near future.

Foreign Tax Credits

The TCJA repeals the Section 902 indirect foreign tax credit (FTC). Companies will need to evaluate their deferred tax assets for unused FTCs to assess whether there are any such credit carryovers which will expire unused. Additionally, Companies should assess whether any of their existing foreign tax credits can be used to offset the one-time repatriation tax, thereby reducing the impact to current tax expense.

Other Provisions

The TCJA also contains many other changes, including elimination of numerous deductions and credits, which have not been discussed in this section. These items–such as the repeal of the Section 199 deduction and tightening of the exclusions under 162(m)–will likely impact the future effective tax rates of Companies. Other items may result in a timing difference (such as the interest rate limitation).  We believe that particular focus and care should be paid to scheduled reversals of deferred tax assets and liabilities as a result of these changes, as these new provisions can potentially have a material impact to the assessment of the realizability of existing deferred tax assets as of December 31, 2017, pursuant to ASC 740-10-55-9.

SEC Interpretive Guidance Related to the U.S. Tax Reform Legislation

On December 22, 2017, the SEC issued Staff Accounting Bulletin (SAB) 118.  The guidance was issued in response to the SEC’s perception that public companies and auditors will face “operational challenges and constraints” when adjusting to the TCJA’s changes and complying with the accounting guidance for income taxes because, among other things, companies may not be able to accurately measure their taxes until the end of 2018 because of the new law.

SAB 118 adds Section EE, Income Tax Accounting Implications of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, to Topic 5, Miscellaneous Accounting, of the SAB Series, which provides guidance on applying FASB ASC 740 if the accounting for certain income tax effects of the TCJA are incomplete by the time the financial statements are issued for a reporting period. This guidance applies only to the application of ASC 740 in connection with the TCJA and should not be applied for other changes in tax laws.

SAB 118 states that the SEC staff expects companies to act in good faith to complete the accounting under ASC 740; therefore, the guidance in SAB 118 does not imply that companies have additional time to recognize the impact of the TCJA. However, in issuing SAB 118, the staff recognizes that the impact of the TCJA will result in many complex calculations in a company’s financial statements, which may take more than one reporting period to finalize.

SAB 118 states that the SEC will permit companies to use “reasonable estimates” and “provisional amounts” for some of their line items for taxes when preparing their fourth-quarter and year-end 2017 financial statements and regulatory filings but in no circumstances should the measurement period extend beyond one year from the enactment date. The following summarizes the guidance in SAB 118

  • For the income tax effects of the TCJA for which an entity has completed the accounting by the time it issues the financial statements for a reporting period, the entity should record those effects in that reporting period. These amounts should not be reported as provisional amounts.
  • For the income tax effects of the TCJA for which an entity has not completed the accounting by the time it issues the financial statements for a reporting period but can determine a reasonable estimate, such estimate should be reported as a provisional amount in those financial statements.
  • For the income tax effects of the TCJA for which an entity has not completed the accounting by the time it issues the financial statements for a reporting period and a reasonable estimate of the income tax effects cannot be determined, the entity should continue to apply ASC 740 (e.g., when recognizing and measuring current and deferred income taxes), based on the provisions of the tax laws that were in effect immediately prior to the enactment date. Therefore, an entity should not adjust its current or deferred income taxes for any specific tax effects of the TCJA until a reasonable estimate of their effect can be determined.

Companies are allowed to use a “measurement period” similar to the concept of a measurement period used in ASC 805, Business Combinations, to complete the accounting for the income tax effects of the TCJA. The measurement period begins from the enactment date and ends when the company has obtained, prepared, and analyzed the information required to complete the accounting requirements under ASC 740. The measurement period cannot extend beyond one year from the enactment date.

During the measurement period, a company may record adjustments to provisional amounts, or to amounts that are recorded under the provisions of tax laws that were in effect immediately prior to enactment, upon obtaining, preparing, or analyzing additional information about facts and circumstances that existed as of the enactment date. Such adjustments should be recorded in income tax expense (or benefit) from continuing operations in the financial reporting period they are identified. However, any income tax effects of events that are unrelated to the TCJA or are related to facts and circumstances that did not exist as of the enactment date should not be recorded as measurement-period adjustments.

Companies should include the following financial statement disclosures to provide information about the material financial reporting impact of the TCJA if the accounting under ASC 740 is incomplete, whether or not a reasonable estimate can be made:

  • Qualitative information about the income tax effects of the TCJA for which the accounting is incomplete
  • Items reported as provisional amounts
  • Existing current or deferred tax amounts for which the income tax effects of the TCJA have not been completed
  • Reason why the initial accounting is incomplete
  • Additional information that needs to be obtained, prepared, or analyzed to complete the accounting requirements under FASB ASC 740
  • Nature and amount of any measurement-period adjustments recognized during the reporting period
  • Effect of measurement-period adjustments on the effective income tax rate
  • When the accounting for the income tax effects of the TCJA has been completed

OBSERVATION: While only public companies are subject to SAB 118, we believe that it would be reasonable to apply its guidance on ASC 740 in financial statements issued by entities that are not SEC registrants.

Quarterly Accounting Update: Rev Rec Implementation

In 2014, the FASB issued ASU 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers. The guidance in ASU 2014-09 is codified primarily in ASC 606, with the same title. The new revenue recognition standard affects all entities—public, private, and not-for-profit—that have contracts with customers. It is broad reaching across an organization and impacts many functional areas: accounting, tax, financial reporting, financial planning and analysis, investor relations, treasury (e.g., debt covenants), sales, legal, information technology, and human resources (e.g., employee compensation plans). It involves significant judgments and estimates, thoughtful revision of accounting policies, and new required disclosures. Implementation is a significant effort. If companies have not begun the process already, it is imperative to start preparing immediately. For many companies, the new standard will require evaluation of 2018 financial information under the new guidance.

The scope of the new standard applies to revenue arising from contracts with customers, except for the following: lease contracts, insurance contracts, contractual rights and obligations within the scope of other guidance, and non-monetary exchanges between entities in the same line of business to facilitate sales to customers; in other words, 99 percent of all revenue transactions. As a result, there are potentially significant changes ahead for certain industries, and some level of change for almost all entities.

The 5-Step Model

The core principle of the new guidance is that a company should recognize revenue to reflect the transfer of goods and services to customers in an amount equal to the consideration that the company receives or expects to receive. To apply that principle, the seller will need to:

  1. Identify the contract with a customer.
  2. Identify the separate performance obligations in the contract.
  3. Determine the transaction price.
  4. Allocate the transaction price to the separate performance obligations.
  5. Recognize revenue as each performance obligation is satisfied.

Contract – The first step is to identify the contract with a customer. In order to meet the definition of a contract, it must meet the following requirements: the parties have approved the contract and are committed to satisfying their respective obligations; the seller can identify each party’s rights regarding goods and services; the seller can identify the payment terms for the goods or services; the contract has commercial substance; and it is probable that the seller will collect the consideration to which it will be entitled in exchange for the goods or services that will be transferred to the customer.

Performance Obligations – The second step is to identify the separate performance obligations in the contract. A performance obligation is a promise (whether explicit, implicit, or implied by the seller’s customary business practice) in a contract with a customer to transfer a good or service to the customer. Identifying the separate performance obligations in a contract is essential to applying the revenue recognition model. Separate performance obligations are the units of account to which the transaction price is allocated, and satisfaction of those separate performance obligations determines the timing of revenue recognition.

Transition Price – The third step is to determine the transaction price. The transaction price is the amount of consideration that the seller expects to be entitled to in exchange for transferring promised goods or services to a customer, excluding amounts collected on behalf of a third party (for example, sales taxes). Determining the transaction price can be straightforward in many arrangements, but might be more complex if the arrangement involves variable consideration or a significant financing component (which requires adjustment for the time value of money).

Allocate – The fourth step is to allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations based on relative standalone selling prices. The best estimate for standalone selling price is an observable price. If an observable price is not available, management will need to estimate the selling price. This concept is very similar to the current guidance on multiple element arrangements.

Recognize – The fifth and final step is to recognize revenue when a performance obligation is satisfied. If the obligation is satisfied over time, revenue is recognized using the method that best depicts the transfer of goods and services to the customer. If the obligation is satisfied at a point in time, revenue is recognized when control transfers to the customer. This is basically consistent with current guidance, although there are some circumstances when the timing of transfer of control might be different.

Identifying Performance Obligations

A performance obligation is defined as a promise in a contract with a customer to transfer a good or service to the customer. If an entity promises in a contract to transfer more than one good or service to the customer, the entity should account for each promised good or service as a performance obligation only if it is (1) distinct or (2) a series of distinct goods or services that are substantially the same and have the same pattern of transfer.

A promised good or service is distinct if both of the following criteria are met:

  1. Capable of being distinct—the customer can benefit from the good or service either on its own or together with other resources that are readily available to the customer.
  2. Distinct within the context of the contract—the promise to transfer the good or service is separately identifiable from other promises in the contract.

A promised good or service that is not distinct should be combined with other promised goods or services until the entity identifies a bundle of goods or services that is distinct.

Illustration: Identifying Performance Obligations

The following factors, among others, indicate that a good or service can be separately identified:

  • The entity does not provide a significant service of integrating the good or service with other goods or services promised in the contract. In other words, the entity is not using the good or service as an input to produce or deliver the combined output specified by the customer.
  • The good or service does not significantly modify or customize another good or service promised in the contract.
  • The good or service is not highly dependent on, or highly interrelated with, other goods or services promised in the contract. For example, a customer could decide to not purchase the good or service without significantly affecting the other promised goods or services.

Example 1: Identifying Performance Obligations

Scenario A—Distinct Goods or Services

TomCo, a software developer, enters into a contract with a customer to transfer a software license, perform an installation service, and provide unspecified software updates and technical support (online and telephone) for a two-year period. TomCo sells the license, installation service, and technical support separately. The installation service includes changing the web screen for each type of user (for example, marketing, inventory management, and information technology). The installation service is routinely performed by other entities and does not significantly modify the software. The software remains functional without the updates and the technical support.

TomCo assesses the goods and services promised to the customer to determine which goods and services are distinct. TomCo observes that the software is delivered before the other goods and services and remains functional without the updates and the technical support. Thus, TomCo concludes that the customer can benefit from each of the goods and services either on their own or together with the other goods and services that are readily available and the criterion is met.

TomCo also considers the factors and determines that the promise to transfer each good and service to the customer is separately identifiable from each of the other promises (thus, the criterion is met). In particular, TomCo observes that the installation service does not significantly modify or customize the software itself, and, as such, the software and the installation service are separate outputs promised by the entity instead of inputs used to produce a combined output.

On the basis of this assessment, TomCo identifies four performance obligations in the contract for the following goods or services:

  1. The software license
  2. An installation service
  3. Software updates
  4. Technical support

Scenario B—Significant Customization

The promised goods and services are the same as in Scenario A, except that the contract specifies that, as part of the installation service, the software is to be substantially customized to add significant new functionality to enable the software to interface with other customized software applications used by the customer. The customized installation service can be provided by other entities.

TomCo assesses the goods and services promised to the customer to determine which goods and services are distinct in accordance. TomCo observes that the terms of the contract result in a promise to provide a significant service of integrating the licensed software into the existing software system by performing a customized installation service as specified in the contract. In other words, TomCo is using the license and the customized installation service as inputs to produce the combined output (that is, a functional and integrated software system) specified in the contract. In addition, the software is significantly modified and customized by the installation service. Although the customized installation service can be provided by other entities, TomCo determines that within the context of the contract, the promise to transfer the license is not separately identifiable from the customized installation service and, therefore, the criterion is not met. Thus, the software license and the customized installation service are not distinct.

As in Scenario A, TomCo concludes that the software updates and technical support are distinct from the other promises in the contract. This is because the customer can benefit from the updates and technical support either on their own or together with the other goods and services that are readily available and because the promise to transfer the software updates and the technical support to the customer are separately identifiable from each of the other promises.

On the basis of this assessment, TomCo identifies three performance obligations in the contract for the following goods or services:

  1. Customized installation service (that includes the software license)
  2. Software updates
  3. Technical support

OBSERVATION: The vendor-specific objective evidence (VSOE) guidance is eliminated by the new standard. Software companies will apply the same rules as all other entities.  This may allow software companies to accelerate revenue recognition that was previously deferred by VSOE requirements. Software companies also may be more inclined to offer additional goods or services (such as support, training, or potential upgrades) in contracts if they are able to avoid VSOE revenue deferral.

Example 2: Identifying Performance Obligations

DebCo, a manufacturer, sells a product to KurtCo, a distributor (i.e., its customer), who will then resell it to an end customer.

Scenario A—Explicit Promise of Service

In the contract with KurtCo, DebCo promises to provide maintenance services for no additional consideration (i.e., “free”) to any party (that is, the end customer) that purchases the product from KurtCo. DebCo outsources the performance of the maintenance services to KurtCo and pays the distributor an agreed-upon amount for providing those services on DebCo’s behalf. If the end customer does not use the maintenance services, DebCo is not obliged to pay KurtCo.

Because the promise of maintenance services is a promise to transfer goods or services in the future and is part of the negotiated exchange between DebCo and KurtCo, DebCo determines that the promise to provide maintenance services is a performance obligation. DebCo concludes that the promise would represent a performance obligation regardless of whether DebCo, KurtCo, or a third party provides the service. Consequently, DebCo allocates a portion of the transaction price to the promise to provide maintenance services.

Scenario B—Implicit Promise of Service

DebCo has historically provided maintenance services for no additional consideration (i.e., “free”) to end customers that purchase DebCo’s product from KurtCo. DebCo does not explicitly promise maintenance services during negotiations with KurtCo, and the final contract between DebCo and KurtCo does not specify terms or conditions for those services.

However, on the basis of its customary business practice, DebCo determines at contract inception that it has made an implicit promise to provide maintenance services as part of the negotiated exchange with KurtCo. That is, DebCo’s past practices of providing these services create valid expectations of DebCo’s customers (i.e., KurtCo and end customers). Consequently, DebCo identifies the promise of maintenance services as a performance obligation to which it allocates a portion of the transaction price.

Scenario C—Services Are Not a Performance Obligation

In the contract with KurtCo, DebCo does not promise to provide any maintenance services. In addition, DebCo typically does not provide maintenance services, and, therefore, DebCo’s customary business practices, published policies, and specific statements at the time of entering into the contract have not created an implicit promise to provide goods or services to its customers. DebCo transfers control of the product to KurtCo and, therefore, the contract is completed. However, before the sale to the end customer, DebCo makes an offer to provide maintenance services to any party that purchases the product from KurtCo for no additional promised consideration.

The promise of maintenance is not included in the contract between DebCo and KurtCo at contract inception. That is, DebCo does not explicitly or implicitly promise to provide maintenance services to KurtCo or the end customers. Consequently, DebCo does not identify the promise to provide maintenance services as a performance obligation. Instead, the obligation to provide maintenance services is accounted for in accordance with ASC 450, Contingencies.

OBSERVATION: If you have questions or need more information related to the new revenue recognition standard, please contact your Elliott Davis adviser. We have a questionnaire designed to help clients identify the significant changes that may occur to their revenue recognition and cost policies as a result of ASC 606. In addition, we have a checklist to assist clients in their transition to and initial application of ASC 606.

What’s Next?

The new revenue recognition guidance is effective for public entities for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim periods within that reporting period. For nonpublic entities, the standard is effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2018, and interim periods within annual periods beginning after December 15, 2019.

Quarterly Accounting Update: Regulatory Update

House Approves Regulatory Exemption for “Micro Offerings”

The House of Representatives on November 9, 2017, passed a bill to create an exemption for so-called “micro-offerings” of up to $500,000. If the Micro Offering Safe Harbor Act (H.R., 2201) becomes law, it will create an exemption from SEC registration under the Securities Act of 1933 for private companies that raise as much as $500,000 per year from up to 35 friends, family members, and other investors with whom the issuer has a “substantive preexisting relationship.” Offerings under the bill would also be exempt from state “blue sky” securities regulations. The bill is favored by small business groups and the U.S. Chamber of Commerce, but it has drawn skepticism from consumer advocates who say the changes are unnecessary and put investors at risk.

H.R. 2201 creates a similar, but somewhat less-regulated path to raising start-up capital compared to Rule 506(b) in Regulation D, the most widely used regulatory exemption used by young companies. Rule 506(b) has no limit on the amount of funds that can be raised through the unregistered offerings, and it lets up to 35 investors in an offering be non-accredited. Issuers using the exemption are required to publicly file a “Form D” notice with the SEC, which provides a limited set of disclosures about the size of the offering, the amount raised, and the names of officers and directors. Issuers can also raise capital under Rule 506(b) from an unlimited number of accredited investors, who must make at least $200,000 per year individually, or $300,000 if filing jointly, or have $1 million in net assets not including their primary residence.

House Committee Approves Host of Revisions to Dodd-Frank, JOBS Acts

The House Financial Services Committee on November 15, 2017, passed several pieces of legislation to amend the Dodd-Frank Act, JOBS Act, and other financial industry regulations. The markup session comes one month after the panel advanced some two dozen other financial deregulation bills to the House floor. At the markup, the Financial Services Committee pushed through another two dozen measures, including bills to rein in proxy advisory firms, expand the maximum size of Regulation A offerings, strip out Dodd-Frank conflict minerals disclosure requirements, and reduce the frequency of stress testing and so-called “living will” requirements on banks.

The committee’s second marathon markup session is part of an end-of-year effort to push through a flurry of securities industry deregulation on an a-la-carte basis, a markedly different approach to the committee’s earlier efforts to advance similar reforms as part of a single legislative package in H.R. 10, the Financial Choice Act. The Choice Act passed the House in June, but has yet to see any action in the Senate.

Some of the bills passed this week mirror language in the Choice Act, including H.R. 4015, Corporate Governance Reform and Transparency Act of 2017. The bill would amend the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 to set out a new registration and reporting regime for proxy advisory firms, which would include new disclosures on conflicts-of-interest and methodology. The bill addresses long-standing grievances of some companies and Wall Street banks that the two dominant proxy advisory firms, Institutional Shareholder Services (ISS) and Glass Lewis and Co., exert undue influence on corporate governance matters, operate with little oversight, and are rife with conflicts of interests.

Another measure, H.R. 4263, the Regulation A+ Improvement Act, would raise the ceiling on Regulation A offerings under the Securities Act of 1933 from $50 million to $75 million. The proposed increase would build on Title IV of the JOBS Act, which overhauled the little-used exemption. Before the 2012 legislation, Regulation A allowed for companies to raise a maximum $5 million from the public in unregistered offerings, provided the offerings were subject to state “blue sky” securities regulations. Under the SEC’s 2015 rules in Release No. 33-9741, Amendments to Regulation A, companies could raise as much as $50 million from the public, while skirting review from state securities regulators. The offerings are subject to a lighter accounting and disclosure load than a full-fledged initial public offering.

Also on November 14, the committee passed:

  • R. 4248—would repeal the Dodd-Frank language behind the SEC’s 2012 rules in Release No. 34-67716, Conflict Minerals, which established reporting requirements for public companies that source gold, tin, and other minerals from the war-torn Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and its surrounding countries.
  • R. 4279—would give closed-end funds a path to being considered “well-known seasoned issuers” (WKSIs) and reduce their filing requirements. WKSI status offers companies several benefits, including the streamlined ability to raise capital through shelf offerings under a Form S-3 registration statement.
  • R. 4292—would bar the Federal Reserve and Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) from requiring banks to submit “living will” resolution plans more frequently than every two years, among other changes.
  • R. 4293—would overhaul the process by which banks perform stress tests under the Dodd-Frank Act. Under the measure, certain banks would be allowed to conduct the tests once per year, instead of semiannually.

Senate Bill Would Expand Sarbanes-Oxley Section 404(b) Exemptions

A bipartisan Senate bill would expand public company exemptions from the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404(b) in the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, mirroring a House measure. S. 2126, the Fostering Innovation Act, would give businesses classified as Emerging Growth Companies (EGCs) an additional five years of relief from one of the most expensive Sarbanes-Oxley requirements.

Section 404(b) mandates that an outside auditor review and report on management’s assessment of internal controls over financial reporting (ICFR). Critics of the requirements say they are burdensome and expensive for small public issuers, especially those with little revenue, while 404(b)’s defenders warn that expanding the scope of exemptions could undermine the quality of internal controls.

The JOBS Act of 2012 defined EGCs as companies with less than $1 billion in annual revenue, among other requirements. EGCs enjoy a host of accounting and disclosure benefits, including an exemption from Section 404(b). The companies lose the exemption when their EGC status expires, which occurs after a company has been public for five years. The Fostering Innovation Act extends the exemption another five years as long as it has less than $50 million in annual sales, and the publicly traded value of its stock is less than $700 million.

Senate Banking Committee to Consider Dodd-Frank Rollbacks

The Senate Banking Committee on December 5, 2017, considered a broad financial deregulation bill to narrow systemic risk safeguards under the Dodd-Frank Act, among other changes. S. 2155, the Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief and Consumer Protection Act, has been embraced by moderate Democrats but faces opposition from the party’s more progressive wing in the Senate.

S. 2155 takes a lighter touch than previous efforts to roll back all or most of Dodd-Frank. The bill’s centerpiece provision would raise the asset threshold under which a bank is automatically marked as a systemically important financial institution (SIFI), which places it under closer Federal Reserve supervision, tougher capital and liquidity standards, and regular stress testing and “living will” resolution planning. The bill also frees banks with less than $10 billion in assets from the restrictions of the Volcker Rule, which bars banks from proprietary trading or taking stakes in private equity funds or hedge funds, among other provisions.

The House Financial Services Committee passed a far more sweeping deregulatory bill in H.R. 10, the Financial Choice Act, without support from Democrats. H.R. 10 passed the House in June, but the bill has yet to see action in the Senate, in part because of the potential for a Democratic filibuster. Unlike the Financial Choice Act in the House, the Senate bill is chiefly concerned with banking rules, mortgage and consumer finance, and investor protection issues, and avoids making changes to public company accounting and disclosure requirements.

SEC Planning to Update Cybersecurity Disclosure Guidance

The SEC is planning to update its 2011 interpretive guidance for public company disclosures about cybersecurity risks. While the SEC is not looking to overhaul Disclosure Guidance: Topic No. 2, Cybersecurity, it does intend to refresh the document, which does not have a specific requirement to disclose computer system intrusions. Regulators in the Corporation Finance Division have not decided whether the update will be issued in the form of staff-level guidance or a regulatory release approved by the SEC’s commissioners.

The agency’s effort to update the guidance comes amid concerns that more public companies have been experiencing attacks to their computer systems, but their disclosures have not been timely or informative enough to satisfy Disclosure Guidance: Topic No. 2. The interpretive guidance gives the agency staff’s views about public company obligations to disclose information about their cybersecurity risks. Investors in the past few years have been especially vocal about pushing companies to provide more information about cybersecurity, and SEC Chairman Jay Clayton has told lawmakers during congressional hearings that he believes companies can do a better job of disclosing the risks they face and hacks into their computers.

SEC’s New Cyber Unit – Cybersecurity Disclosures May Lead to Enforcement Actions

In a speech in October, Enforcement Division Co-Director Stephanie Avakian laid out the vision for the division’s new Cyber Unit which was created in late September aimed at countering growing cybersecurity-related threats and misconduct.

While the SEC’s enforcement arm has yet to bring a case against a public company over cybersecurity disclosures, according to Avakian, that may change.  Avakian acknowledged that cyber disclosure is a “complex area subject to significant judgment,” and said the SEC is “not looking to second-guess reasonable, good faith disclosure decisions,” however Avakian also stated that cybersecurity disclosures are an “area of potential enforcement interest” and further noted that “we can certainly envision a case where enforcement action would be appropriate.”

Reminder to Prepare for PCAOB Auditor Report Changes

In a speech in December, Mark Panucci, a deputy chief accountant in the SEC’s Office of the Chief Accountant, encouraged public companies and their auditors to prepare for the PCAOB’s new standard that significantly changes the content of the auditor’s report.  Basic elements of the new report are required for fiscal years ending on or after December 15, 2017.  The most significant provision, which requires audit firms to disclose critical audit matters (CAMs), will be effective for audits of fiscal years ending on or after June 30, 2019 for large accelerated filers and for audits of fiscal years ending on or after December 15, 2020 for all other companies.  Effectively, CAMs are issues from the client’s financial statements that were significant or complicated enough to require extra attention from the auditor.  Due to the potential sensitivity of disclosures related to some CAMs, beginning the dialogue now will help reduce the likelihood of surprises when the CAMs effective date comes around.

Quarterly Accounting Update: Other Developments

Leases Standard to Get Two Minor Revisions before Effective Date

The FASB plans to issue a proposal in January to make the much-watched lease accounting standard easier to apply. The proposal is expected to call for changes to how companies make the transition to the new accounting and revise guidance related to separately reporting the lease and non-lease components of receipts from maintenance charges from rent payments when certain conditions are met.

Property managers in recent months had been especially vocal about a requirement in the standard that would have made them break out the fees for “common area maintenance” charges, such as security, elevator repairs, or snow removal and account for them separately from the charges associated with renting out land or buildings. The proposal will give lessors the option not to separately account for the the lease and non-lease components of fees when certain conditions are met.

The second proposed change involves how businesses make the transition to the new standard from the current guidance in ASC 840, Leases. The new standard requires companies to follow a so-called modified retrospective approach, which means that as businesses and other organizations adopt the standard, they will need to restate two prior years of balance sheets and three prior years of income and cash flow statements with the new accounting. The transition requirement is intended to help investors and analysts more accurately compare prior periods, but businesses told the FASB the restatement of the income statements and balance sheets from prior years was a significant undertaking, especially because few software solutions exist yet to help companies apply the new lease accounting standard. The proposal will make the restatement requirement optional and let companies continue presenting results using the old lease guidance for prior periods upon adoption of the new accounting.

Small Business Advisory Committee Backs Simplified Approach to Goodwill Accounting

Representatives from small businesses, auditors, and investors told the FASB on November 30, 2017, that they supported further changes to the accounting for acquired goodwill, an area of U.S. GAAP that has long challenged financial professionals.

ASC 350, Intangibles—Goodwill and Other, requires public companies to test for declines in the value of goodwill at least once a year. When the value declines, companies must take an impairment charge that often signals to the market that the buyer overpaid for the acquisition and that the newly acquired assets will not contribute to earnings growth in the near term. The impairment test, however, has long been subject to criticism—and the FASB has attempted to tinker with it over the years to make it easier to follow. Companies say it is a complex, time-consuming exercise that usually requires costly valuation experts to weigh in. Investors also complain about a lag between the impairment occurring and the charge being recognized in company financial statements.

The FASB does not plan to take action in the near future to change the accounting for goodwill, although the topic of subsequent accounting for goodwill and identifiable intangible assets in a business combination is on the board’s long-term research agenda. The FASB, which has made several changes in recent years to goodwill accounting, also wants to know whether public companies should be allowed to make use of a break the board extended to private companies in 2014 with ASU 2014-02, Accounting for Goodwill—a Consensus of the Private Company Council. The amended guidance allows private companies to amortize goodwill for up to 10 years. It also simplifies the test the businesses have to perform to determine whether the goodwill has lost value. Instead of automatically testing for impairment every year, private companies only test when there is a “triggering event” that suggests that the fair value of the acquired business is less than the carrying amount on the balance sheet. The FASB’s most recent change to goodwill accounting was published in January with ASU 2017-04, Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment, which requires a one-step process to test goodwill for impairments instead of U.S. GAAP’s two-step process.

Quarterly Accounting Update: On the Horizon

The following selected FASB exposure drafts and projects are outstanding as of December 31, 2017.

Balance Sheet Classification of Debt

The purpose of this project is to reduce cost and complexity by replacing the fact-pattern specific guidance in U.S. GAAP with a principle to classify debt as current or noncurrent based on the contractual terms of a debt arrangement and an entity’s current compliance with debt covenants.

On January 10, 2017, the FASB issued a proposed ASU on determining whether debt should be classified as current or noncurrent in a classified balance sheet. In place of the current, fact-specific guidance in ASC 470-10, the proposed ASU would introduce a classification principle under which a debt arrangement would be classified as noncurrent if either (1) the “liability is contractually due to be settled more than one year (or operating cycle, if longer) after the balance sheet date” or (2) the “entity has a contractual right to defer settlement of the liability for at least one year (or operating cycle, if longer) after the balance sheet date.” Under an exception to the classification principle, an entity would not classify debt as current solely because of the occurrence of a debt covenant violation that gives the lender the right to demand repayment of the debt, as long as the lender waives its right before the financial statements are issued (or are available to be issued).

Many businesses, professional groups, and some auditors criticized the proposal in their comment letters. But others, including a majority of the FASB’s Private Company Council (PCC) at a meeting in July, stated the FASB’s proposal made sense and would simplify U.S. GAAP’s myriad, fact-specific rules about debt classification. Proponents of the changes also said that by the time the updated guidance became effective, the public would have a better idea about the principles behind the changes. Regulators also potentially could adapt their rules so companies that reported higher short-term debt solely because of the accounting change would not be disqualified from projects.

On September 13, 2017, the FASB approved the update 6-1. The FASB agreed that public companies would have to comply with the new guidance for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, and interim periods within those fiscal years. Private companies and other organizations would not have to follow the revised guidance until their fiscal years that begin after December 15, 2020, and interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2021. All organizations can apply the amendments early.

The FASB is expected to issue the final standard during the first quarter of 2018.

Land Easement Practical Expedient for Lease Transition

On September 25, 2017, the FASB issued a proposed ASU to provide a practical expedient for transition to ASC 842, Leases. The amendments in this proposed ASU would clarify that land easements are required to be assessed under ASC 842 to determine whether the arrangements are or contain a lease. The amendments would also permit an entity to elect a transition practical expedient to not apply ASC 842 to land easements that exist or expired before the effective date of ASC 842 and that were not previously assessed under ASC 840, Leases. An entity would be required to apply the practical expedient consistently to all of its existing or expired land easements that were not previously assessed under ASC 840. An entity would continue to apply its current accounting policy for accounting for land easements that existed before the effective date of ASC 842. Once an entity adopts ASC 842, it would apply that guidance prospectively to all new (or modified) land easements to determine whether the arrangement should be accounted for as a lease.

The FASB is expected to issue the final standard during the first quarter of 2018.

GASB Proposal to Require More Disclosures about Debts

On July 12, 2017, the GASB released a proposal to require state and local governments to disclose more information in their financial statement footnotes about their debts.  Specifically, the proposal calls for state and local governments to provide more information about the amounts of their lines of credit they have not yet used, the collateral pledged to secure debt, and the specific terms in debt agreements among other things.  The proposal also includes proposed guidance that would clarify which liabilities governments should include in their footnote disclosures related to debt.

The GASB is expected to issue the final standard during the first quarter of 2018.

Clarification for Not-for-Profits’ Accounting for Contributions

On August 3, 2017, the FASB is issued a proposed ASU to clarify and improve the scope and the accounting guidance for contributions received and contributions made. The amendments in this proposed ASU would assist entities in (1) evaluating whether transactions should be accounted for as contributions (nonreciprocal transactions) within the scope of ASC 958, Not-for-Profit Entities, or as exchange (reciprocal) transactions subject to other guidance and (2) distinguishing between conditional contributions and unconditional contributions.

The amendments in this proposed ASU would clarify and improve current guidance about whether a transfer of assets is an exchange transaction or a contribution. The proposed amendments would clarify how an entity determines whether a resource provider is participating in an exchange transaction by evaluating whether the resource provider is receiving commensurate value in return for the resources transferred on the basis of the following:

  1. A resource provider (including a private foundation, a government agency, or other) is not synonymous with the general public. Indirect benefit received by the public as a result of the assets transferred is not equivalent to commensurate value received by the resource provider.
  2. Execution of a resource providers’ mission or the positive sentiment from acting as a donor would not constitute commensurate value received by a resource provider for purposes of determining whether a transfer of assets is a contribution or an exchange.

The amendments in this proposed Update would require that an entity determine whether a contribution is conditional on the basis of whether an agreement includes a barrier that must be overcome and either a right of return of assets transferred or a right of release of a promisor’s obligation to transfer assets.

Expanded Inventory Disclosures Proposed

On January 10, 2017, the FASB issued a proposed ASU, Disclosure Framework—Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Inventory, which calls on businesses to provide more detailed disclosures about their raw materials and finished goods.

The proposed ASU would require business to disclose their inventory by component, such as by raw materials, finished goods, supplies, and works-in-process. Businesses also would have to break down how their inventory is measured. Businesses use a variety of measurement techniques for inventory, including last-in, first-out (LIFO), first-in, first-out (FIFO), LIFO retail inventory method, or weighted average.  Significant shrinkage, spoilage, damage or other unusual transactions or circumstances affecting inventory balances also would have to be disclosed.

Additionally, businesses would have to describe the types of costs capitalized into inventory, the effect of LIFO liquidations on income, and the replacement cost of LIFO inventory.

The comment period for this proposed ASU closed on March 13.  The FASB is currently redeliberating the proposed ASU in light of the comments received.

Nonemployee Share-Based Payment Accounting Improvements

The purpose of this project is to reduce cost and complexity and improve the accounting for nonemployee share-based payment awards issued by public and private companies.

On March 7, 2017, the FASB issued a proposed ASU that would simplify the accounting for share-based payments granted to nonemployees for goods and services. Under the proposal, most of the guidance on such payments would be aligned with the requirements for share-based payments granted to employees.

The FASB is expected to issue the final standard during the first quarter of 2018.

Disclosure Framework

The disclosure framework project consists of two phases: (1) the FASB’s decision process and (2) the entity’s decision process. The overall objective of the project is to improve the effectiveness of disclosures in notes to financial statements by clearly communicating the information that is most important to users of each entity’s financial statements. Although reducing the volume of the notes to financial statements is not the primary focus, the FASB hopes that a sharper focus on important information will result in reduced volume in most cases.

In March 2014, the FASB issued an Exposure Draft, Conceptual Framework for Financial Reporting: Chapter 8 Notes to Financial Statements, intended to improve its process for evaluating existing and future disclosure requirements in notes to financial statements. Specifically, it addresses the FASB’s process for identifying relevant information and the limits on information that should be included in notes to financial statements. If approved, it would become part of the FASB’s Conceptual Framework, which provides the foundation for making standard-setting decisions.

In September 2015, the FASB issued two proposals—one about the use of materiality by reporting entities, Assessing Whether Disclosures Are Material, and the other amending the Conceptual Framework’s definition of materiality, Conceptual Framework for Financial Reporting Chapter 3: Qualitative Characteristics of Useful Financial Information. These two proposals were issued to help entities decide what information should be included in their footnotes without bogging them down with extra details.

The main provisions would draw attention to the role materiality plays in making decisions about disclosures. More specifically, the proposed ASU explains that: (a) materiality would be applied to quantitative and qualitative disclosures individually and in the aggregate in the context of the financial statements as a whole; therefore, some, all, or none of the requirements in a disclosure Section may be material; (b) materiality would be identified as a legal concept; and (c) omitting a disclosure of immaterial information would not be an accounting error.

At its November 2017 meeting, the FASB decided that the concepts on the notes to financial statements, subject to any new/revised decisions made in redeliberations, are substantially complete, however redeliberations are ongoing in response to the comments received.

Consolidation Reorganization

On November 2, 2016, the Board added this project to its technical agenda. Further, it tentatively decided to (1) clarify the consolidation guidance in ASC 810, Consolidation, by dividing it into separate Codification subtopics for voting interest entities and variable interest entities (VIEs); (2) develop a new Codification topic that would include those reorganized subtopics and would completely supersede ASC 810; (3) rescind the subsections on consolidation of entities controlled by contract in ASC 810-10-15 and in ASC 810-30 on research and development arrangements; (4) further clarify that power over a VIE is obtained through a variable interest; and (5) provide further clarification of the application of the concept of “expected,” which is used throughout the VIE consolidation guidance.

At its March 8, 2017, meeting, the FASB discussed the feedback received at its December 16, 2016, public roundtable and voted to move forward with a proposed ASU that reorganizes the consolidation guidance.  On September 20, 2017, the FASB issued Proposed ASU, Consolidation (Topic 812): Reorganization and the comment period has closed.  The proposed ASU is now in the redeliberation phase related to comment responses received.

Targeted Improvements to VIE Guidance

At its March 8, 2017, meeting, the FASB decided to add to its agenda a project on an elective private-company scope exception to the VIE guidance for entities under common control and certain targeted improvements to the existing related-party guidance in the VIE model. On May 18, 2017, the FASB directed the staff to draft a proposed ASU for a vote by written ballot. The exposure draft, Consolidations (Topic 810): Targeted Improvements to Related Party Guidance for Variable Interest Entities was issued in June and the comment period has closed.  The proposed ASU is now in the redeliberation phase related to comment responses received.

EITF Agenda Items

At its October 2017 meeting, the FASB’s Emerging Issues Task Force (EITF) tentatively decided that all cloud computing arrangements include a software element that should be accounted for in the same manner as internal-use software. This tentative decision broadens the scope of the project beyond the accounting for implementation costs in a cloud computing arrangement that is considered a service contract and would require recognizing the right to use asset in the service contract on the balance sheet similar to the new leases guidance.

EITF Discussion

In May 2017, the FASB asked the EITF to address the customer’s accounting for implementation costs in a cloud computing arrangement that is considered a service contract. The objective of this issue is to reduce diversity in practice.

At the July 2017 meeting, the Task Force was asked to consider several proposed accounting alternatives for implementation costs in a cloud computing arrangement that is considered a service contract. There was support for two of the alternatives. In one alternative (Alternative B), an entity would recognize implementation costs as an asset or expense when incurred on the basis of existing GAAP (for example, guidance related to prepaid assets, internal-use software, property, plant, and equipment, business technology and reengineering). Under another proposed alternative (Alternative C), implementation costs would be recorded using the same model under ASC 350-40 as if the cloud computing arrangement included a software license. However, Task Force members also expressed concerns with each of those approaches. As a result, the staff was instructed to perform additional research on a variety of topics.

After performing subsequent research, the staff presented two alternatives at the October 2017 meeting. Alternative B was unchanged from the prior meeting (implementation costs would be recognized as an asset or expense based on existing GAAP). Alternative C was revised from the July meeting based on the view that the customer in a cloud computing arrangement has an economic resource irrespective of ownership or location of the software and should therefore be accounted for in the same manner as internal-use software. Under this alternative, an entity would record an asset (similar to a right of use asset) and a liability measured at the present value of the unpaid hosting fees related to the software element, similar to the new leases guidance. An entity would capitalize or expense implementation costs pursuant to ASC 350-40.

Most Task Force members supported Alternative C (revised) because it would align the accounting for all cloud computing arrangements, regardless of whether they contain a license. That is, those Task Force members believe that cloud computing arrangements that are considered service contracts are economically similar to those that contain a software license.

The Task Force discussed several issues that could arise in applying Alternative C (revised) to the software element, including software that is licensed outside of a cloud computing arrangement. For example, there was some discussion about how to determine the term of the contract and the discount rate and the treatment of variable payments and contract modifications.

Because the accounting for the software element under Alternative C (revised) would be similar to the accounting for a leased asset under the new leases standard, the FASB staff was directed to research whether the guidance in ASC 842, Leases, could be leveraged to address these issues. The Task Force also directed the staff to research whether the accounting for the software element should resemble the accounting for a finance lease or an operating lease under the new leases standard (i.e., whether the arrangement should result in a single operating cost or amortization and interest expense).

While the accounting for the software element under Alternative C (revised) would be similar to the accounting for leases, the accounting for the upfront costs would be different. Only costs that are directly attributable to negotiating and arranging a lease that would not have been incurred without entering into the lease will be capitalized under ASC 842, whereas implementation costs in the application development stage would be capitalized for cloud computing arrangements following the guidance in ASC 350-40.

The Task Force will continue deliberations at a future meeting.

PCC Activities

The Private Company Council (PCC) met on Friday, December 8, 2017. At the meeting, the FASB staff delivered updates (and the PCC provided input) on the following FASB topics:

  • Customer’s Accounting for Implementation, Setup, and Other Upfront Costs (Implementation Costs) Incurred in a Cloud Computing Arrangement (CCA) That Is Considered a Service Contract—PCC members expressed their view that implementation costs should be capitalized in these arrangements, but not the fees for a CCA that is considered to be a service contract.
  • Financial Performance Reporting—PCC members discussed the results of research performed by the FASB staff on private company financial statements and the potential impact disaggregation of performance information could have within the private company sector.
  • Invitation to Comment, Agenda Consultation—The FASB staff provided an update on the decisions reached by the Board at its September 20, 2017 meeting when it met to discuss the FASB Invitation to Comment, Agenda Consultation.

The next PCC meeting will be held on Friday, April 20, 2018.

APPENDIX A

Important Implementation Dates

The following table contains significant implementation dates and deadlines for FASB/EITF/PCC and GASB standards.

FASB/EITF/PCC Implementation Dates

Pronouncement
Affects
Effective Date and Transition
ASU 2017-15, Elimination of Topic 995 Steamship entities that have unrecognized deferred taxes related to statutory reserve deposits that were made on or before December 15, 1992 Effective for fiscal years and first interim periods beginning after December 15, 2018. Early adoption is permitted for all entities, including adoption in an interim period.
ASU 2017-14, Amendments to SEC Paragraphs Pursuant to Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 116 and SEC Release No. 33-10403 All entities that are SEC filers. Effective upon issuance.
ASU 2017-13, Amendments to SEC Paragraphs Pursuant to the Staff Announcement at the July 20, 2017 EITF Meeting and Rescission of Prior SEC Staff Announcements and Observer Comments (SEC Update) All entities that are SEC filers. Effective upon issuance.
ASU 2017-12, Targeted Improvements to Accounting for Hedging Activities Entities that elect to apply hedge accounting Effective for public business entities for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, and interim periods therein. Effective for all other entities for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, and interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020. All entities are permitted to early adopt the new guidance in any interim or annual period after issuance of the ASU.
ASU 2017-11,  (Part I) Accounting for Certain Financial Instruments with Down Round Features, (Part II) Replacement of the Indefinite Deferral for Mandatorily Redeemable Financial Instruments of Certain Nonpublic Entities and Certain Mandatorily Redeemable Noncontrolling Interests with a Scope Exception Entities that issue financial instruments that include down round features Effective for public business entities for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2018. Effective for all other entities for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, and interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020. Early adoption is permitted.
ASU 2017-10, Determining the Customer of the Operation Services—a consensus of the Emerging Issues Task Force Operating entities with service concession arrangements within the scope of ASC 853, Service Concession Arrangements Dependent upon the adoption of ASC 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers.
ASU 2017-09, Scope of Modification Accounting Entities that provide share-based payment awards. Effective for all entities for annual periods, and interim periods within those annual periods, beginning after December 15, 2017. Early adoption is permitted, including adoption in any interim period. The amendments should be applied prospectively to an award modified on or after the adoption date.
ASU 2017-08, Premium Amortization on Purchased Callable Debt Securities Entities that hold investments in callable debt securities held at a premium Effective for public business entities for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2018. For all other entities, the amendments are effective for fiscal years beginning after  December  15,  2019,  and  interim  periods  within  fiscal  years  beginning  after December 15, 2020. Early adoption is permitted, including adoption in an interim period.
ASU 2017-07, Improving the Presentation of Net Periodic Pension Cost and Net Periodic Postretirement Benefit Cost Entities that offer defined benefit pension plans, other postretirement benefit plans, or other types of benefits accounted for under ASC 715. Effective for public business entities for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017. For other entities, the amendments are effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2018, and interim periods in the subsequent annual period. Early adoption is permitted as of the beginning of any annual period for which an entity’s financial statements have not been issued or made available for issuance.
ASU 2017-06, Employee Benefit Plan Master Trust Reporting—a consensus of the Emerging Issues Task Force                                         Entities within the scope of ASC 960, ASC 962, or ASC 965. Effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018. Early adoption is permitted. An entity should apply the amendments retrospectively to each period for which financial statements are presented.
ASU 2017-05, Clarifying the Scope of Asset Derecognition Guidance and Accounting for Partial Sales of Nonfinancial Assets All entities. See the Effective Date and Transition of ASU 2014-09, below.
ASU 2017-04, Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment All entities. Effective for public business entities that are SEC filers for annual and interim goodwill impairment tests in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019. For public business entities that are not SEC filers, the amendments are effective for annual and interim goodwill impairment tests in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020. For all other entities, including not-for-profit entities, the amendments are effective for annual and interim goodwill impairment tests in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2021. Early adoption is permitted for interim or annual goodwill impairment tests performed on testing dates after January 1, 2017.
ASU 2017-03, Amendments to SEC Paragraphs Pursuant to Staff Announcements at the September 22, 2016 and November 17, 2016 EITF Meetings  All entities. Effective upon issuance.
ASU 2017-02, Clarifying When a Not-for-Profit Entity That Is a General Partner or a Limited Partner Should Consolidate a For-Profit Limited Partnership or Similar Entity Not-for-profit entities. Effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2016, and interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017. Early adoption is permitted, including adoption in an interim period.
ASU 2017-01, Clarifying the Definition of a Business All entities. Effective for public business entities for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim periods within those annual periods. For all other entities, the amendments are effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2018, and interim periods within annual periods beginning after December 15, 2019.
ASU 2016-20, Technical Corrections and Improvements to Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers All entities. See the Effective Date and Transition of ASU 2014-09, below.
ASU 2016-19, Technical Corrections and Improvements All entities. Effective upon issuance (December 14, 2016) for amendments that do not have transition guidance. Amendments that are subject to transition guidance: effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2016. Early adoption is permitted.
ASU 2016-18, Restricted Cash (a consensus of the FASB Emerging Issues Task Force) All entities. The amendments are effective for public business entities for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, and interim periods within those fiscal years. For all other entities, the amendments are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, and interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019. Early adoption is permitted, including adoption in an interim period. If an entity early adopts the amendments in an interim period, any adjustments should be reflected as of the beginning of the fiscal year that includes that interim period.

The amendments should be applied using a retrospective transition method to each period presented.

ASU 2016-17, Interests Held through Related Parties That Are under Common Control All entities. The amendments are effective for public business entities for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2016, including interim periods within those fiscal years. For all other entities, the amendments are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2016, and interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017. Early adoption is permitted, including adoption in an interim period. If an entity early adopts the amendments in an interim period, any adjustments should be reflected as of the beginning of the fiscal year that includes that interim period.

Entities that have not yet adopted the amendments in ASU 2015-02 are required to adopt the amendments at the same time they adopt the amendments in ASU 2015-02 and should apply the same transition method elected for the application of ASU 2015-02.

Entities that already have adopted the amendments in ASU 2015-02 are required to apply the amendments retrospectively to all relevant prior periods beginning with the fiscal year in which the amendments in ASU 2015-02 initially were applied.

ASU 2016-16, Intra-Entity Transfers of Assets Other Than Inventory All entities. For public business entities, the amendments are effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim reporting periods within those annual reporting periods. For all other entities, the amendments are effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2018, and interim reporting periods within annual periods beginning after December 15, 2019. Early adoption is permitted for all entities as of the beginning of an annual reporting period for which financial statements (interim or annual) have not been issued or made available for issuance. That is, earlier adoption should be in the first interim period if an entity issues interim financial statements.

The amendments should be applied on a modified retrospective basis through a cumulative-effect adjustment directly to retained earnings as of the beginning of the period of adoption.

ASU 2016-15, Classification of Certain Cash Receipts and Cash Payments (a consensus of the Emerging Issues Task Force) All entities. The amendments are effective for public business entities for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, and interim periods within those fiscal years. For all other entities, the amendments are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, and interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019. Early adoption is permitted, including adoption in an interim period. If an entity early adopts the amendments in an interim period, any adjustments should be reflected as of the beginning of the fiscal year that includes that interim period. An entity that elects early adoption must adopt all of the amendments in the same period.

The amendments should be applied using a retrospective transition method to each period presented. If it is impracticable to apply the amendments retrospectively for some of the issues, the amendments for those issues would be applied prospectively as of the earliest date practicable.

ASU 2016-14, Presentation of Financial Statements of Not-for-Profit Entities All not-for-profit entities. The amendments are effective for annual financial statements issued for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, and for interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018. Application to interim financial statements is permitted but not required in the initial year of application. Early application of the amendments is permitted.
ASU 2016-13, Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments All entities that hold financial assets and net investment in leases that are not accounted for at fair value through net income. For public business entities (PBE) that are Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) filers, the new standard is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2019 (for a calendar-year entity, it would be effective January 1, 2020).

For PBEs that are not SEC filers, the new standard is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2020.

For all other organizations, the new standard is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020, and for interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2021.

Early application will be permitted for all organizations for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2018.

ASU 2016-12, Narrow-Scope Improvements and Practical Expedients All entities See the Effective Date and Transition of ASU 2014-09, below.
ASU 2016-11, Rescission of SEC Guidance Because of Accounting Standards Updates 2014-09 and 2014-16 Pursuant to Staff Announcements at the March 3, 2016 EITF Meeting (SEC Update) None. None.
ASU 2016-10, Identifying Performance Obligations and Licensing All entities See the Effective Date and Transition of ASU 2014-09, below.
ASU 2016-09, Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting All entities that issue share-based payment awards to their employees. For public business entities, the amendments are effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2016, and interim periods within those annual periods.

For entities other than public business entities, the amendments are effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017, and interim periods within annual periods beginning after December 15, 2018.

Early adoption is permitted for any organization in any interim or annual period.

ASU 2016-08, Principal versus Agent Considerations

(Reporting Revenue Gross versus Net)

All entities. See the Effective Date and Transition of ASU 2014-09, below.
ASU 2016-07, Simplifying the Transition to the Equity Method of Accounting Entities that have an investment that becomes qualified for the equity method of accounting as a result of an increase in the level of ownership interest or degree of influence. The amendments are effective for all entities for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2016. The amendments should be applied prospectively upon their effective date to increases in the level of ownership interest or degree of influence that result in the adoption of the equity method. Earlier application is permitted.
ASU 2016-06, Contingent Put and Call Options in Debt Instruments (a consensus of the Emerging Issues Task Force) Entities that are issuers of or investors in debt instruments (or hybrid financial instruments that are determined to have a debt host) with embedded call (put) options. For public business entities, the amendments are effective for financial statements issued for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2016, and interim periods within those fiscal years.

For entities other than public business entities, the amendments are effective for financial statements issued for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, and interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018.

An entity should apply the amendments on a modified retrospective basis to existing debt instruments as of the beginning of the fiscal year for which the amendments are effective.

Early adoption is permitted, including adoption in an interim period. If an entity early adopts the amendments in an interim period, any adjustments should be reflected as of the beginning of the fiscal year that includes that interim period.

ASU 2016-05, Effect of Derivative Contract Novations on Existing Hedge Accounting Relationships (a consensus of the Emerging Issues Task Force) Entities for which there is a change in the counterparty to a derivative instrument that has been designated as a hedging instrument. For public business entities, the amendments are effective for financial statements issued for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2016, and interim periods within those fiscal years.

For all other entities, the amendments are effective for financial statements issued for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, and interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018.

An entity has an option to apply the amendments on either a prospective basis or a modified retrospective basis.

Early adoption is permitted, including adoption in an interim period.

ASU 2016-04, Recognition of Breakage for Certain Prepaid Stored-Value Products (a consensus of the Emerging Issues Task Force) Entities that offer certain prepaid stored-value products. For public business entities, NFPs that have issued, or is a conduit bond obligor for, securities that are traded, listed, or quoted on an exchange or an OTC market, or an employee benefit plan that files financial statements with the SEC, the amendments are effective for financial statements issued for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, and interim periods within those fiscal years.

For all other entities, the amendments are effective for financial statements issued for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, and interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019.

The amendments should be applied either using a modified retrospective transition method by means of a cumulative-effect adjustment to retained earnings as of the beginning of the fiscal year in which the guidance is effective or retrospectively to each period presented.

Earlier application is permitted, including adoption in an interim period.

ASU 2016-03, Effective Date and Transition Guidance (a consensus of the Private Company Council) All entities except public business entities, as defined in the Master Glossary of the FASB Accounting Standards Codification, not-for-profit entities, and employee benefit plans. The amendments are effective immediately.
ASU 2016-02, Leases All lessee and lessor entities. For public business entities, NFPs that have issued, or is a conduit bond obligor for, securities that are traded, listed, or quoted on an exchange or an OTC market, or an employee benefit plan that files financial statements with the SEC, the amendments are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within those fiscal years.

For all other entities, the amendments are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, and interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020.

Early application of the amendments is permitted for all entities.

ASU 2016-01, Recognition and Measurement of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities Entities that hold financial assets or owe financial liabilities. For public companies the amendments are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim periods within those fiscal years.

For private companies, not-for-profit organizations, and employee benefit plans, the standard becomes effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, and for interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019.

ASU 2015-17, Balance Sheet Classification of Deferred Taxes Entities that have deferred tax assets and/or deferred tax liabilities. For public business entities, the amendments are effective for financial statements issued for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2016, and interim periods within those annual periods.

For all other entities, the amendments are effective for financial statements issued for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017, and interim periods within annual periods beginning after December 15, 2018.

ASU 2015-16, Simplifying the Accounting for Measurement-Period Adjustments Entities that have reported provisional amounts for items in a business combination for which the accounting is incomplete. For public business entities, the amendments are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2015, including interim periods within those fiscal years. All other entities are required to apply the new requirements for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2016, and interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017.

All entities are required to apply the amendments prospectively to adjustments to provisional amounts that occur after the effective date, with earlier application permitted for financial statements that have not been issued.

ASU 2015-14, Revenue From Contracts With Customers (ASC 606): Deferral of the Effective Date All entities. See the Effective Date and Transition of ASU 2014-09, below.
ASU 2015-11, Simplifying the Measurement of Inventory Entities that have inventory. For public business entities, the amendments are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2016, including interim periods within those fiscal years. For all other entities, the amendments are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2016, and interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017. The amendments should be applied prospectively with earlier application permitted as of the beginning of an interim or annual reporting period.
ASU 2015-09, Disclosures about Short-Duration Contracts Insurance entities that issue short-duration contracts as defined in FASB ASC 944, Financial Services—Insurance. For public business entities, the amendments are effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2015, and interim periods within annual periods beginning after December 15, 2016. For all other entities, the amendments are effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2016, and interim periods within annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017.
ASU 2015-05, Customer’s Accounting for Fees Paid in a Cloud Computing Arrangement All entities. For public business entities, the amendments will be effective for annual periods, including interim periods within those annual periods, beginning after December 15, 2015. For all other entities, the amendments will be effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2015, and interim periods in annual periods beginning after December 15, 2016. Early adoption is permitted for all entities.
ASU 2015-04, Practical Expedient for the Measurement Date of an Employer’s Defined Benefit Obligation and Plan Assets All entities. The amendments are effective for public business entities for financial statements issued for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2015, and interim periods within those fiscal years. For all other entities, the amendments are effective for financial statements issued for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2016, and interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017. Earlier application is permitted.
ASU 2015-03, Simplifying the Presentation of Debt Issuance Costs All entities. For public business entities, the amendments are effective for financial statements issued for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2015, and interim periods within those fiscal years. For all other entities, the amendments are effective for financial statements issued for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2015, and interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2016. Early adoption is permitted for financial statements that have not been previously issued.
ASU 2015-02, Amendments to the Consolidation Analysis All entities. Effective for public business entities for fiscal years, and for interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2015. For all other entities, the amendments are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2016, and for interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017. Early adoption is permitted, including adoption in an interim period. If an entity early adopts the amendments in an interim period, any adjustments should be reflected as of the beginning of the fiscal year that includes that interim period.

A reporting entity may apply the amendments using a modified retrospective approach by recording a cumulative-effect adjustment to equity as of the beginning of the fiscal year of adoption. A reporting entity also may apply the amendments retrospectively.

ASU 2014-18, Accounting for Identifiable Intangible Assets in a Business Combination—a consensus of the Private Company Council All entities except public business entities, as defined in the Master Glossary of the FASB Accounting Standards Codification, not-for-profit entities, and employee benefit plans. Effective prospectively to the first in-scope transaction after the adoption of the accounting alternative.
ASU 2014-16, Determining Whether the Host Contract in a Hybrid Financial Instrument Issued in the Form of a Share is More Akin to Debt or to Equity All entities that are issuers of, or investors in, hybrid financial instruments that are issued in the form of a share. Effective for public business entities for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2015. For all other entities, the amendments are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2016. Early adoption is permitted. If an entity early adopts the amendments in an interim period, any adjustments should be reflected as of the beginning of the fiscal year that includes that interim period.

Entities should apply the guidance on a modified retrospective basis (cumulative-effect retained earnings adjustment as of the beginning of the year of adoption) to existing hybrid instruments issued in the form of a share as of the beginning of the fiscal year for which this ASU is effective. Retrospective application is permitted to all relevant prior periods.

ASU 2014-15, Disclosure of Uncertainties About and an Entity’s Ability to Continue as a Going Concern All entities. Effective for the annual period ending after December 15, 2016, and for annual periods and interim periods thereafter. Early application is permitted.
ASU 2014-13, Measuring the Financial Assets and the Financial Liabilities of a Consolidated Collateralized Financing Entity—a Consensus of the Emerging Issues Task Force A reporting entity that is required to consolidate a collateralized financing entity. Effective for public business entities for annual periods and interim periods within those annual periods beginning after December 15, 2015. For all other entities, the amendments are effective for annual periods ending after December 15, 2016, and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2016. Early adoption is permitted as of the beginning of an annual period.
ASU 2014-10, Elimination of Certain Financial Reporting Requirements, Including an Amendment to Variable Interest Entities Guidance in Topic 810, Consolidation All entities. Except for the amendments to ASC 810, the guidance is effective for public business entities for reporting periods (including interim periods) beginning after December 15, 2014. For other entities, the amendments are effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2014, and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2015. The amendments to ASC 810 are effective one year later for public business entities and two years later for other entities. The guidance should be applied retrospectively, except for the clarification to ASC 275, which applied prospectively.

Early adoption of the amendments is permitted for any annual reporting period or interim period for which the entity’s financial statements have not yet been issued.

ASU 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers All entities. For public business entities, certain not-for-profit entities, and certain employee benefit plans, the ASU is effective for annual reporting periods (including interim reporting periods within those periods) beginning after December 15, 2017. Early application is permitted only as of annual reporting periods (including interim reporting periods within those periods) beginning after December 15, 2016.

For all other entities, the ASU is effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2018, and interim reporting periods within annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2019. All other entities may apply the ASU early as of an annual reporting period beginning after December 15, 2016, including interim reporting periods within that reporting period. All other entities also may apply the guidance in the ASU early as of an annual reporting period beginning after December 15, 2016, and interim reporting periods within annual reporting periods beginning one year after the annual reporting period in which the entity first applies the guidance in the ASU.

An entity should apply the guidance either retrospectively to each prior reporting period presented or retrospectively with the cumulative effect of initially applying guidance at the date of initial application.

GASB Implementation Dates

Pronouncement
Affects
Effective Date and Transition
Statement 87, Leases Governmental entities. Effective for reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2019.
Statement 86, Certain Debt Extinguishment Issues Governmental entities. Effective for reporting periods beginning after June 15, 2017. Earlier application is encouraged.
Statement 85, Omnibus 2017 Governmental entities. Effective for reporting periods beginning after June 15, 2017. Earlier application is encouraged.
Statement 84, Fiduciary Activities Governmental entities. Effective for reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2018. Earlier application is encouraged.
Statement 83, Certain Asset Retirement Obligations Governmental entities. Effective for reporting periods beginning after June 15, 2018. Earlier application is encouraged.
Statement 82, Pension Issues Governmental entities. Effective for reporting periods beginning after June 15, 2016, except for the requirements for the selection of assumptions in a circumstance in which an employer’s pension liability is measured as of a date other than the employer’s most recent fiscal year-end. In that circumstance, the requirements for the selection of assumptions are effective for that employer in the first reporting period in which the measurement date of the pension liability is on or after June 15, 2017. Earlier application is encouraged.
Statement 81, Irrevocable Split-Interest Agreements Governmental entities. Effective for financial statements for periods beginning after December 15, 2016, and should be applied retroactively. Earlier application is encouraged.
Statement 80, Blending Requirements for Certain Component Units—an amendment of GASB Statement No. 14 Governmental entities. Effective for reporting periods beginning after June 15, 2016. Earlier application is encouraged.
Statement 79, Certain External Investment Pools and Pool Participants Governmental entities. Effective for reporting periods beginning after June 15, 2015, except for certain provisions on portfolio quality, custodial credit risk, and shadow pricing. Those provisions are effective for reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2015. Earlier application is encouraged.
Statement 78, Pensions Provided Through Certain Multiple-Employer Defined Benefit Pension Plans Governmental entities. Effective for reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2015. Earlier application is encouraged.
Statement 77, Tax Abatement Disclosures Governmental entities. Effective for reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2015. Earlier application is encouraged.
Statement 76, The Hierarchy of Generally Accepted Accounting Principles for State and Local Governments Governmental entities. Effective for reporting periods beginning after June 15, 2015. Earlier application is encouraged.
Statement 75, Accounting and Financial Reporting for Postemployment Benefits Other Than Pensions Governmental entities. Effective for fiscal years beginning after June 15, 2017. Early adoption is encouraged.
Statement 74, Financial Reporting for Postemployment Benefit Plans Other Than Pension Plans Governmental entities. Effective for financial statements for periods beginning after June 15, 2016. Early adoption is encouraged.
Statement 73, Accounting and Financial Reporting for Pensions and Related Assets That Are Not within the Scope of GASB Statement 68, and Amendments to Certain Provisions of GASB Statements 67 and 68 Governmental entities. Effective for fiscal years beginning after June 15, 2015—except those provisions that address employers and governmental nonemployer contributing entities for pensions that are not within the scope of Statement 68, which are effective for financial statements for fiscal years beginning after June 15, 2016. Early adoption is encouraged.
Statement 72, Fair Value Measurement and Application Governmental entities. Effective for financial statements for periods beginning after June 15, 2015. Early adoption is encouraged.

APPENDIX B

Illustrative Disclosures for Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements

For the Quarter Ended December 31, 2017

The illustrative disclosures below are presented in plain English.  Please review each disclosure for its applicability to your organization and the need for disclosure in your organization’s financial statements.

ASU 2014-09 ― Applicable to all:

In May 2014, the FASB issued guidance to change the recognition of revenue from contracts with customers. The core principle of the new guidance is that an entity should recognize revenue to reflect the transfer of goods and services to customers in an amount equal to the consideration the entity receives or expects to receive. This guidance also includes expanded disclosure requirements that result in an entity providing users of financial statements with comprehensive information about the nature, amount, timing, and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from the entity’s contracts with customers. The guidance will be effective for the Company for [reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2017.-public business entities] [annual periods beginning after December 15, 2018, and interim periods within annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2019.-all other entities] The Company will apply the guidance using a [full retrospective approach] [modified retrospective approach]. The Company is currently in the process of evaluating the impact of adoption of this guidance on the financial statements.

ASU 2014-10 ― Applicable to development stage entities:

In June 2014, the FASB issued guidance which eliminates the concept of a development stage entity. Accordingly, the incremental reporting requirements for a development stage entity, including inception-to-date information, will no longer apply.  The amendments were effective for the Company for [reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2014, except for certain consolidation requirements which are effective one year later-public business entities] [annual periods beginning after December 15, 2014, and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2015, except for certain consolidation requirements which are effective two years later-all other entities], with early implementation of the amendments permitted. The Company applied the guidance using a retrospective approach, except for certain disclosure requirements which will be applied prospectively. These amendments did not have a material effect on its financial statements.

ASU 2014-15 ― Applicable to all:

In August 2014, the FASB issued guidance that is intended to define management’s responsibility to evaluate whether there is substantial doubt about an organization’s ability to continue as a going concern and to provide related footnote disclosures. In connection with preparing financial statements, management will need to evaluate whether there are conditions or events, considered in the aggregate, that raise substantial doubt about the organization’s ability to continue as a going concern within one year after the date that the financial statements are issued. The amendments will be effective for the Company for annual periods ending after December 15, 2016, and for annual periods and interim periods thereafter with early adoption permitted. The Company does not expect these amendments to have a material effect on its financial statements.

ASU 2014-16 ― Applicable to companies with hybrid financial instruments:

In November 2014, the FASB issued guidance for determining whether embedded features need to be accounted for separately from their host shares. The new guidance requires companies to consider all terms and features, including the embedded feature(s) being evaluated for separate recognition, when determining whether a host contract is more akin to debt or equity; no single term or feature should be considered determinative regarding the nature of the host contract. The amendments will be effective for [fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2015-public business entities] [fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2015, and interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2016-all other entities], with early adoption, including adoption in an interim period, permitted. The Company does not expect these amendments to have a material effect on its financial statements.

ASU 2014-18 ― Applicable to private companies that elect to not recognize certain intangible assets in a business combination:

In December 2014, the FASB amended the Business Combinations topic of the Accounting Standards Codification. Under the amended guidance, a nonpublic entity may elect to not recognize separately from goodwill (1) customer-related intangible assets that are not capable of being sold or licensed independently from the other assets of the business and (2) noncompetition agreements. This alternative generally will result in recognizing fewer intangible assets in a business combination and, correspondingly, more goodwill. The alternative is applied on a prospective basis. In addition, when this alternative is elected, the Company also is required to adopt the alternative accounting related to goodwill which requires that goodwill be amortized on a straight-line basis over a period of ten years or over a shorter period if the Company demonstrates that another useful life is more appropriate. The amendments will be effective for the Company upon the occurrence of the first transaction within the scope of this accounting alternative in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2015, and the effective date of adoption depends on the timing of that first in-scope transaction. If the first in-scope transaction occurs in the first fiscal year beginning after December 15, 2015, the elective adoption will be effective for that fiscal year’s annual financial reporting and all interim and annual periods thereafter. If the first in-scope transaction occurs in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2016, the elective adoption will be effective in the interim period that includes the date of that first in-scope transaction and subsequent interim and annual periods thereafter. The Company does not expect these amendments to have a material effect on its financial statements.

 

 

ASU 2015-02 ― Applicable to all:

In February 2015, the FASB issued guidance which amends the consolidation requirements and significantly changes the consolidation analysis required under U.S. GAAP. Although the amendments are expected to result in the deconsolidation of many entities, the Company will need to reevaluate all its previous consolidation conclusions. The amendments will be effective for [fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2015-public business entities] [fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2016, and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2017-all other entities], with early adoption permitted (including during an interim period), provided that the guidance is applied as of the beginning of the annual period containing the adoption date. The Company does not expect these amendments to have a material effect on its financial statements.

ASU 2015-03 ― Applicable to entities with debt issuance costs:

In April 2015, the FASB issued guidance which changes the presentation of debt issuance costs. The amendments will be effective for [fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2015-public business entities] [fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2015, and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2016-all other entities], with early adoption permitted for financial statements that have not been previously issued. The Company does not expect these amendments to have a material effect on its financial statements.

ASU 2015-04 ― Applicable to entities with defined benefit pension plans:

In April 2015, the FASB issued guidance which provides a practical expedient that permits the Company to measure defined benefit plan assets and obligations using the month-end that is closest to the Company’s fiscal year-end. The amendments will be effective for [fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2015-public business entities] [fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2016, and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2017-all other entities], with early adoption permitted. The Company does not expect these amendments to have a material effect on its financial statements.

ASU 2015-05 ― Applicable to entities with cloud computing arrangements:

In April 2015, the FASB issued guidance which provides guidance to customers about whether a cloud computing arrangement includes a software license. The amendments will be effective for [fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2015-public business entities] [fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2015, and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2016-all other entities], with early adoption permitted. The Company does not expect these amendments to have a material effect on its financial statements.

 

 

ASU 2015-09 ― Applicable to insurance entities that issue short-duration contracts:

In May 2015, the FASB issued guidance which requires insurance entities to disclose for annual reporting periods certain information about the liability for unpaid claims and claim adjustment expenses. The amendments will be effective for [fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2015 and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2016-public business entities] [fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2016, and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2017-all other entities], with early adoption permitted. The Company does not expect these amendments to have a material effect on its financial statements.

ASU 2015-11 ― Applicable to entities that have inventory:

In July 2015, the FASB issued amendments to the Inventory topic of the Accounting Standards Codification to require inventory other than inventory measured at LIFO or retail methods to be measured at the lower of cost and net realizable value. Other than the change in the subsequent measurement guidance from the lower of cost or market to the lower of cost and net realizable value for inventory, there are no other substantive changes to the guidance on measurement of inventory. The amendments will be effective for [fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2016-public business entities] [fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2016, and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2017-all other entities], with early adoption permitted. The Company does not expect these amendments to have a material effect on its financial statements.

ASU 2015-14 ― Applicable to all:

In August 2015, the FASB deferred the effective date of ASU 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers. As a result of the deferral, the guidance in ASU 2014-09 will be effective for the Company for [reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2017.-public business entities] [annual periods beginning after December 15, 2018, and interim periods within annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2019.-all other entities] The Company will apply the guidance using a [full retrospective approach] [modified retrospective approach]. The Company does not expect these amendments to have a material effect on its financial statements.

ASU 2015-16 ― Applicable to all entities that have reported provisional amounts for items in a business combination for which the accounting is incomplete:

In September 2015, the FASB amended the Business Combinations topic of the Accounting Standards Codification to simplify the accounting for adjustments made to provisional amounts recognized in a business combination by eliminating the requirement to retrospectively account for those adjustments. The amendments will be effective for [fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2015-public business entities] [fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2016, and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2017-all other entities], with early adoption permitted for financial statements that have not been issued. All entities are required to apply the amendments prospectively to adjustments to provisional amounts that occur after the effective date.  The Company does not expect these amendments to have a material effect on its financial statements.

ASU 2015-17 ― Applicable to entities that have deferred tax assets and/or deferred tax liabilities:

In November 2015, the FASB amended the Income Taxes topic of the Accounting Standards Codification to simplify the presentation of deferred income taxes by requiring that deferred tax liabilities and assets be classified as noncurrent in a classified statement of financial position. The amendments will be effective for [financial statements issued for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2016, and interim periods within those annual periods-public business entities] [financial statements issued for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017, and interim periods within annual periods beginning after December 15, 2018-all other entities], with early adoption permitted as of the beginning of an interim or annual reporting period. The Company will apply the guidance [prospectively] [retrospectively].  The Company does not expect these amendments to have a material effect on its financial statements.

ASU 2016-01 ― Applicable to entities that hold financial assets or owe financial liabilities:

In January 2016, the FASB amended the Financial Instruments topic of the Accounting Standards Codification to address certain aspects of recognition, measurement, presentation, and disclosure of financial instruments. The amendments will be effective for [fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, includ­ing interim periods within those fiscal years.-public business entities] [fis­cal years beginning after Decem­ber 15, 2018, and interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019.-all other entities, including not-for-profit or­ganizations and employee benefit plans] The Company will apply the guidance by means of a cu­mulative-effect adjustment to the balance sheet as of the beginning of the fiscal year of adoption. The amendments related to equity securities without readily deter­minable fair values will be applied prospectively to equity in­vestments that exist as of the date of adoption of the amendments.  The Company does not expect these amendments to have a material effect on its financial statements.

ASU 2016-02 ― Applicable to lessee and lessor entities:

In February 2016, the FASB amended the Leases topic of the Accounting Standards Codification to require all leases with lease terms over 12 months to be capitalized as a right-of-use asset and lease liability on the balance sheet at the date of lease commencement. Leases will be classified as either finance leases or operating leases. This distinction will be relevant for the pattern of expense recognition in the income statement. The amendments will be effective for [fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, includ­ing interim periods within those fiscal years.-public business entities] [fis­cal years beginning after Decem­ber 15, 2019, and interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020.-all other entities] Early adoption is permitted. The Company is currently in the process of evaluating the impact of adoption of this guidance on the financial statements.

In February 2016, the FASB amended the Leases topic of the Accounting Standards Codification to revise certain aspects of recognition, measurement, presentation, and disclosure of leasing transactions. The amendments will be effective for [fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, includ­ing interim periods within those fiscal years.-public business entities] [fis­cal years beginning after Decem­ber 15, 2019, and interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020.-all other entities] Early adoption is permitted.

We expect to adopt the guidance using the modified retrospective method and practical expedients for transition. The practical expedients allow us to largely account for our existing leases consistent with current guidance except for the incremental balance sheet recognition for lessees. We have started an initial evaluation of our leasing contracts and activities. We have also started developing our methodology to estimate the right-of use assets and lease liabilities, which is based on the present value of lease payments (the December 31, 2017 future minimum lease payments were $____ million). We do not expect a material change to the timing of expense recognition, but we are early in the implementation process and will continue to evaluate the impact. We are evaluating our existing disclosures and may need to provide additional information as a result of adoption of the ASU.

ASU 2016-03 ― Applicable to private companies:

In March 2016, the FASB amended several topics of the Accounting Standards Codification to make the guidance in all private company accounting alternatives effective immediately by removing their effective dates. The amendments also include transition provisions that provide that private companies are able to forgo a preferability assessment the first time they elect the private company accounting alternatives. The amendments were effective immediately.  The Company does not expect these amendments to have a material effect on its financial statements.

ASU 2016-04 ― Applicable to entities that offer certain prepaid stored-value products:

In March 2016, the FASB amended the Liabilities topic of the Accounting Standards Codification to address the current and potential future diversity in practice related to the derecognition of a prepaid stored-value product liability. The amendments will be effective for [financial statements issued for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, includ­ing interim periods within those fiscal years.-public business entities] [financial statements issued for fis­cal years beginning after Decem­ber 15, 2018, and interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019.-all other entities] Early adoption is permitted. The Company will apply the guidance [using a modified retrospective transition method by means of a cumulative-effect adjustment to retained earnings as of the beginning of the fiscal year in which the guidance is effective] [retrospectively] to each period presented.  The Company does not expect these amendments to have a material effect on its financial statements.

ASU 2016-05 ― Applicable to entities for which there is a change in the counterparty to a derivative instrument that has been designated as a hedging instrument:

In March 2016, the FASB amended the Derivatives and Hedging topic of the Accounting Standards Codification to clarify that a change in the counterparty to a derivative instrument that has been designated as the hedging instrument does not, in and of itself, require dedesignation of that hedging relationship provided that all other hedge accounting criteria continue to be met. The amendments will be effective for [financial statements issued for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2016, includ­ing interim periods within those fiscal years.-public companies] [financial statements issued for fis­cal years beginning after Decem­ber 15, 2017, and interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018.-all other entities] Early adoption is permitted. The Company will apply the guidance [using a modified retrospective transition] [prospectively] to each period presented.  The Company does not expect these amendments to have a material effect on its financial statements.

ASU 2016-06 ― Applicable to entities that are issuers of or investors in debt instruments (or hybrid financial instruments that are determined to have a debt host) with embedded call (put) options:

In March 2016, the FASB amended the Derivatives and Hedging topic of the Accounting Standards Codification to clarify the requirements for assessing whether contingent call (put) options that can accelerate the payment of principal on debt instruments are clearly and closely related to their debt hosts. The amendments will be effective for [financial statements issued for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2016, includ­ing interim periods within those fiscal years.-public business entities] [financial statements issued for fis­cal years beginning after Decem­ber 15, 2017, and interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018.-all other entities] Early adoption is permitted. The Company will apply the guidance using a modified retrospective transition to existing debt instruments as of the beginning of the fiscal year for which the amendments are effective.  The Company does not expect these amendments to have a material effect on its financial statements.

ASU 2016-07 ― Applicable to entities that have an investment that becomes qualified for the equity method of accounting as a result of an increase in the level of ownership interest or degree of influence:

In March 2016, the FASB amended the Investments—Equity Method and Joint Ventures topic of the Accounting Standards Codification to eliminate the requirement to retroactively adopt the equity method of accounting. The amendments are effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2016. Early adoption is permitted. The Company will apply the guidance prospectively upon their effective date to increases in the level of ownership interest or degree of influence that result in the adoption of the equity method.  The Company does not expect these amendments to have a material effect on its financial statements

ASU 2016-08 ― Applicable to all:

In March 2016, the FASB amended the Revenue from Contracts with Customers topic of the Accounting Standards Codification to clarify the implementation guidance on principal versus agent considerations and address how an entity should assess whether it is the principal or the agent in contracts that include three or more parties. The amendments will be effective for the Company for [reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2017.-public business entities] [annual periods beginning after December 15, 2018, and interim periods within annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2019.-all other entities] The Company does not expect these amendments to have a material effect on its financial statements.

ASU 2016-09 ― Applicable to all:

In March 2016, the FASB issued guidance to simplify several aspects of the accounting for share-based payment award transactions including the income tax consequences, the classification of awards as either equity or liabilities, and the classification on the statement of cash flows.  Additionally, the guidance simplifies two areas specific to entities other than public business entities allowing them apply a practical expedient to estimate the expected term for all awards with performance or service conditions that have certain characteristics and also allowing them to make a one-time election to switch from measuring all liability-classified awards at fair value to measuring them at intrinsic value.  The amendments will be effective for the Company for [annual periods beginning after December 15, 2016 and interim periods within those annual periods.-public business entities] [annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017, and interim periods within annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2018.-all other entities] Early adoption is permitted. The Company does not expect these amendments to have a material effect on its financial statements.

ASU 2016-10 ― Applicable to all:

In April 2016, the FASB amended the Revenue from Contracts with Customers topic of the Accounting Standards Codification to clarify guidance related to identifying performance obligations and accounting for licenses of intellectual property. The amendments will be effective for the Company for [reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2017.-public business entities] [annual periods beginning after December 15, 2018, and interim periods within annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2019.-all other entities] The Company does not expect these amendments to have a material effect on its financial statements.

ASU 2016-12 ― Applicable to all:

In May 2016, the FASB amended the Revenue from Contracts with Customers topic of the Accounting Standards Codification to clarify guidance related to collectability, noncash consideration, presentation of sales tax, and transition. The amendments will be effective for the Company for [reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2017.-public business entities] [annual periods beginning after December 15, 2018, and interim periods within annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2019.-all other entities] The Company does not expect these amendments to have a material effect on its financial statements.

ASU 2016-13 ― Applicable to entities that hold financial assets and net investment in leases that are not accounted for at fair value through net income:

In June 2016, the FASB issued guidance to change the accounting for credit losses and modify the impairment model for certain debt securities. The guidance requires a financial asset (including trade receivables) measured at amortized cost basis to be presented at the net amount expected to be collected. Thus, the income statement will reflect the measurement of credit losses for newly-recognized financial assets as well as the expected increases or decreases of expected credit losses that have taken place during the period. The amendments will be effective for the Company for [reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2019.-SEC filers] [reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2020.-public business entities that are not SEC filers] [annual periods beginning after December 15, 2020, and interim periods within annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2021.-all other entities] Early adoption is permitted for all organizations for periods beginning after December 15, 2018. The Company is currently in the process of evaluating the impact of adoption of this guidance on the financial statements.

ASU 2016-14 ― Applicable to all not-for-profit entities:

In August 2016, the FASB issued guidance to make targeted improvements to the not-for-profit financial reporting model, including changes in how a not-for-profit organization classifies its net assets, as well as the information it presents in financial statements and notes about its liquidity, financial performance, and cash flows. The amendments will be effective for the Organization for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017 and interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018. Early adoption is permitted. The Organization is currently evaluating the effect that implementation of the new guidance will have on its financial statements.

ASU 2016-15 ― Applicable to all:

In August 2016, the FASB amended the Statement of Cash Flows topic of the Accounting Standards Codification to clarify how certain cash receipts and cash payments are presented and classified in the statement of cash flows. The amendments will be effective for the Company for [fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017 including interim periods within those fiscal years.-public business entities] [fiscal years beginning after Decem­ber 15, 2018, and interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019.-all other entities] Early adoption is permitted. The Company does not expect these amendments to have a material effect on its financial statements.

 

ASU 2016-16 ― Applicable to all:

In October 2016, the FASB amended the Income Taxes topic of the Accounting Standards Codification to modify the accounting for intra-entity transfers of assets other than inventory. The amendments will be effective for the Company for [fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017 including interim periods within those fiscal years.-public business entities] [fis­cal years beginning after Decem­ber 15, 2018, and interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019.-all other entities] Early adoption is permitted. The Company does not expect these amendments to have a material effect on its financial statements.

ASU 2016-17 ― Applicable to all:

In October 2016, the FASB amended the Consolidation topic of the Accounting Standards Codification to revise the consolidation guidance on how a reporting entity that is the single decision maker of a variable interest entity (VIE) should treat indirect interests in the entity held through related parties that are under common control with the reporting entity when determining whether it is the primary beneficiary of that VIE. The amendments will be effective for the Company for [fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2016 including interim periods within those fiscal years.-public business entities] [fiscal years beginning after Decem­ber 15, 2016, and interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017.-all other entities] Early adoption is permitted. The Company does not expect these amendments to have a material effect on its financial statements.

ASU 2016-18 ― Applicable to all:

In November 2016, the FASB amended the Statement of Cash Flows topic of the Accounting Standards Codification to clarify how restricted cash is presented and classified in the statement of cash flows. The amendments will be effective for the Company for [fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017 including interim periods within those fiscal years.-public business entities] [fis­cal years beginning after Decem­ber 15, 2018, and interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019.-all other entities] Early adoption is permitted. The Company does not expect these amendments to have a material effect on its financial statements.

ASU 2016-19 ― Applicable to all:

In December 2016, the FASB issued amendments to clarify the Accounting Standards Codification, correct unintended application of guidance, and make minor improvements to the ASC that are not expected to have a significant effect on current accounting practice or create a significant administrative cost to most entities. The amendments were effective upon issuance (December 14, 2016) for amendments that do not have transition guidance. Amendments that are subject to transition guidance will be effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2016. Early adoption is permitted. The Company does not expect these amendments to have a material effect on its financial statements.

ASU 2016-20 ― Applicable to all:

In December 2016, the FASB issued technical corrections and improvements to the Revenue from Contracts with Customers Topic.  These corrections make a limited number of revisions to several pieces of the revenue recognition standard issued in 2014.  The effective date and transition requirements for the technical corrections will be effective for the Company for [reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2017.-public business entities] [annual periods beginning after December 15, 2018, and interim periods within annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2019.-all other entities] The Company will apply the guidance using a [full retrospective approach] [modified retrospective approach]. The Company does not expect these amendments to have a material effect on its financial statements.

ASU 2017-01 ― Applicable to all:

In January 2017, the FASB issued guidance to clarify the definition of a business with the objective of adding guidance to assist entities with evaluating whether transactions should be accounted for as acquisitions (or disposals) of assets or businesses. The amendment to the Business Combinations Topic is intended to address concerns that the existing definition of a business has been applied too broadly and has resulted in many transactions being recorded as business acquisitions that in substance are more akin to asset acquisitions. The guidance will be effective for the Company for [reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2017.-public business entities] [annual periods beginning after December 15, 2018, and interim periods within annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2019.-all other entities] Early adoption is permitted. The Company does not expect these amendments to have a material effect on its financial statements.

ASU 2017-02 ― Applicable to all not-for-profit entities:

In January 2017, the FASB amended the Not-for-Profit Entities Topic of the Accounting Standards Codification to clarify consolidation guidance for not-for-profit entities. The amendments will be effective for the Organization for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2016 and interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017. Early adoption is permitted. The Organization is currently evaluating the effect that implementation of the new standard will have on its financial statements.

ASU 2017-03 ― Applicable to SEC filers:

In January 2017, the FASB updated the Accounting Changes and Error Corrections and the Investments—Equity Method and Joint Ventures Topics of the Accounting Standards Codification.  The ASU incorporates into the Accounting Standards Codification recent SEC guidance about disclosing, under SEC SAB Topic 11.M, the effect on financial statements of adopting the revenue, leases, and credit losses standards.  The ASU was effective upon issuance. The Company is currently evaluating the impact on additional disclosure requirements as each of the standards is adopted, however it does not expect these amendments to have a material effect on its financial statements.

ASU 2017-04 ― Applicable to all:

In January 2017, the FASB amended the Goodwill and Other Topic of the Accounting Standards Codification to simplify the accounting for goodwill impairment for public business entities and other entities that have goodwill reported in their financial statements and have not elected the private company alternative for the subsequent measurement of goodwill. The amendment removes Step 2 of the goodwill impairment test. A goodwill impairment will now be the amount by which a reporting unit’s carrying value exceeds its fair value, not to exceed the carrying amount of goodwill.  The effective date and transition requirements for the technical corrections will be effective for the Company for [reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2019.-public business entities that are SEC filers] [reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2020.-public business entities that are not SEC filers] [reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2021.-all other entities] Early adoption is permitted for interim or annual goodwill impairment tests performed on testing dates after January 1, 2017.  The Company does not expect these amendments to have a material effect on its financial statements.

ASU 2017-05 ― Applicable to all:

In February 2017, the FASB amended the Other Income Topic of the Accounting Standards Codification to clarify the scope of the guidance on nonfinancial asset derecognition as well as the accounting for partial sales of nonfinancial assets. The amendments conform the derecognition guidance on nonfinancial assets with the model for transactions in the new revenue standard. The amendments will be effective for the Company for [reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2017.-public business entities] [annual periods beginning after December 15, 2018, and interim periods within annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2019.-all other entities] The Company does not expect these amendments to have a material effect on its financial statements.

ASU 2017-06 ― Applicable to employee benefit plans with a master trust:

In February 2017, the FASB amended the guidance related to employee benefit plan master trust reporting. The new guidance provides for presentation within the plan’s financial statements of its interest in a master trust as a single line item; disclosure of the master trust’s investments by general type as well as by the dollar amount of the plan’s interest in each type; disclosure of the master trust’s other assets and liabilities and the balances related to the plan; and elimination of required disclosures for Section 401(h) accounts that are already provided by the associated defined benefit plan. The amendments are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018. Early adoption is permitted. The Plan does not expect these amendments to have a material effect on its financial statements.

 

 

ASU 2017-07 ― Applicable to entities that offer defined benefit pension plans, other postretirement benefit plans, or other types of benefits accounted for under ASC 715:

In March 2017, the FASB amended the requirements in the Compensation—Retirement Benefits Topic of the Accounting Standards Codification related to the income statement presentation of the components of net periodic benefit cost for an entity’s sponsored defined benefit pension and other postretirement plans. The amendments will be effective for the Company for [interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017.-public business entities] [annual periods beginning after December 15, 2018, and interim periods within annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2019.-all other entities] Early adoption is permitted. The Company does not expect these amendments to have a material effect on its financial statements.

ASU 2017-08 ― Applicable to entities that hold investments in callable debt securities held at a premium

In March 2017, the FASB amended the requirements in the Receivables—Nonrefundable Fees and Other Costs Topic of the Accounting Standards Codification related to the amortization period for certain purchased callable debt securities held at a premium. The amendments shorten the amortization period for the premium to the earliest call date. The amendments will be effective for the Company for [interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2018.-public business entities] [annual periods beginning after December 15, 2019, and interim periods within annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2020.-all other entities] Early adoption is permitted. The Company does not expect these amendments to have a material effect on its financial statements.

ASU 2017-09 ― Applicable to entities with stock compensation plans

In May 2017, the FASB amended the requirements in the Compensation—Stock Compensation Topic of the Accounting Standards Codification related to changes to the terms or conditions of a share-based payment award. The amendments provide guidance about which changes to the terms or conditions of a share-based payment award require an entity to apply modification accounting. The amendments will be effective for the Company for annual periods, and interim periods within those annual periods, beginning after December 15, 2017. Early adoption is permitted. The Company does not expect these amendments to have a material effect on its financial statements.

ASU 2017-10 ― Applicable to entities with service concession arrangements

In May 2017, the FASB amended the requirements in the Service Concession Arrangements Topic of the Accounting Standards Codification to clarify how an operating entity determines the customer of the operation services for service concession arrangements. The amendments will be effective for the Company for {[reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2017.-public business entities] [annual periods beginning after December 15, 2018, and interim periods within annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2019.-all other entities] –entities that have not adopted ASU 2014-09} {[fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim periods within those fiscal years.-public business entity, a not-for-profit entity that has issued, or is a conduit bond obligor for, securities that are traded, listed, or quoted on an exchange or an over-the-counter market, and an employee benefit plan that files or furnishes financial statements with or to the SEC] [fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, and interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019.-all other entities]-entities that have adopted ASU 2014-09} The Company does not expect these amendments to have a material effect on its financial statements.

ASU 2017-11 ― Applicable to entities that issue financial instruments that include down round features

In July 2017, the FASB amended the requirements in the Earnings per Share, Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity, and Derivatives and Hedging Topics of the Accounting Standards Codification to address the complexity of accounting for certain financial instruments with down round features. The amendments will be effective for the Company for [interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2018.-public business entities] [annual periods beginning after December 15, 2019, and interim periods within annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2020.-all other entities] Early adoption is permitted. The Company does not expect these amendments to have a material effect on its financial statements.

ASU 2017-12 ― Applicable to entities that elect to apply hedge accounting

In August 2017, the FASB amended the requirements of the Derivatives and Hedging Topic of the Accounting Standards Codification to improve the financial reporting of hedging relationships to better portray the economic results of an entity’s risk management activities in its financial statements. The amendments will be effective for the Company for [interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2018.-public business entities] [annual periods beginning after December 15, 2019, and interim periods within annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2020.-all other entities] Early adoption is permitted. The Company does not expect these amendments to have a material effect on its financial statements.

ASU 2017-13 ― Applicable to SEC filers:

In September 2017, the FASB updated the Revenue from Contracts with Customers and the Leases Topics of the Accounting Standards Codification. The amendments incorporate into the Accounting Standards Codification recent SEC guidance about certain public business entities (PBEs) electing to use the non-PBE effective dates solely to adopt the FASB’s new standards on revenue and leases. The amendments were effective upon issuance. The Company is currently in the process of evaluating the impact of adoption of this guidance, however it does not expect these amendments to have a material effect on its financial statements.

ASU 2017-14 ― Applicable to SEC filers:

In November 2017, the FASB updated the Income Statement and Revenue from Contracts with Customers Topics of the Accounting Standards Codification. The amendments incorporate into the Accounting Standards Codification recent SEC guidance related to revenue recognition. The amendments were effective upon issuance. The Company is currently evaluating the impact on revenue recognition, however it does not expect these amendments to have a material effect on its financial statements.

ASU 2017-15 ― Applicable to U.S. Steamship Entities:

In December 2017, the FASB removed the U.S. Steamship Entities Topic of the Accounting Standards Codification. The amendments remove the guidance for steamship entities with respect to unrecognized deferred taxes related to certain statutory reserve deposits. The amendments are effective for fiscal years and first interim periods beginning after December 15, 2018.  Early adoption is permitted.  The Company does not expect these amendments to have a material effect on its financial statements.

Applicable to all:

Other accounting standards that have been issued or proposed by the FASB or other standards-setting bodies are not expected to have a material impact on the Company’s financial position, results of operations or cash flows.